Python Compare Two Database Tables

python: Hi, How do I select data from two tables from two different databases and compare them? using dbi,odbc 1) Does "two different databases" mean two different DBMSs, or just two logically distinct databases withing one DBMS? Some DBMS allow for accessing across "database" boundaries (as. Mappings and Dictionaries¶. xlsx/40 KB) Concordance tables in spreadsheet format. Table A has a list of all the plants currently available. Can anyone tell me what Python function should I use to compare values stored in one column in an attribute table with values stored within a script's dictionary{}. When comparing two. Delete Columns from a Table. In particular, trying to generate output to list match/unmatch sequences for ecah client. I wanted a Money data type, and after proposing a pre-PEP in comp. default will be used. If you are new to Python review the. In the fifth example, the list of squares is filtered according to whether the given entries are greater than 5 and less than 50. One important feature of PyTables is that it optimizes memory and disk resources so that data takes much less space (specially if on-flight compression is used) than other solutions such as relational or object oriented databases. At last, we will cover how to delete and reinsert a key for new ordereddict, and popitem. If no table is present in your MySQL server you can refer to our article to create a MySQL table from Python. And here is the same data as a Scatter Plot: Now we can easily see that warmer weather and more ice cream sales are linked, but the relationship is not perfect. This tool supports masking out of characters, words, and lines of text in an ASCII file. A t test can tell you by comparing the means of the two groups and letting you know the probability of those results happening by chance. here is the sample SQL script for joining tables from databases on different SQL Servers:. Hey, Scripting Guy! I have a script that I wrote to compare two files, but it seems really slow. I would like to compare to a string frequence between two dataframes in R. # find the difference between two texts. 02/09/2017; 3 minutes to read; In this article. With the JTable class you can display tables of data, optionally allowing the user to edit the data. These are jagged. Apache Spark is a unified analytics engine for big data processing, with built-in modules for streaming, SQL, machine learning and graph processing. SQL Expression Language. We can also compare the sorted values with the output that is obtained when the table() command is applied to it. Compare the two tables at the right. a 2D data frame with height and width. Tables are equivalent to Apache Spark DataFrames. If you need values from Python variables it is recommended to use the "?" placeholder. I am a beginner at Python scripting and database queries. As Christian and I have already mentioned in part 1 of this simulation study series, pandas and data. We need the to find where the tables are same How to compare two tables in oracle database?. Offers a natural and flexible syntax, for faster development. For hash tables, we must first figure out the placement of the data in this contiguous chunk of memory. All of these have their own advantages and disadvantages. This tutorial shows how easy it is to use the Python programming language to work with JSON data. Pandas is a Python module, and Python is the programming language that we're going to use. This kind of mapping is supported by the Python dictionary, dict. PostgreSQL and MySQL are two of the most common open source databases for storing Python web applications' data. Here, we assume that the data populations follow the normal distribution. It loops over the rows in table as they are provided by the Table. The first field is sorted, then the second field, and so on, in ascending order. Both the Input Base Table and Input Test Table are sorted based on the fields you specify. For reading data and performing EDA operations, we’ll primarily use the numpy and pandas Python packages, which offer simple API’s that allow us to plug our data sources and perform our desired operation. This file is a comma-delimited text file which can be viewed and used as a table in ArcGIS. If you meant some Python. As mentioned before, it is essentially a replacement for Python's native datetime, but is based on the more efficient numpy. Chapter 14 Using databases and Structured Query Language (SQL) 14. 11 False Graduated 113 Zoe 4. This allows you to account for any slight changes that might have occurred in processing your data. compare two mysql table. Sorting HOW TO¶ Author. Here is simple sql to show data in table1, but not in table2: SELECT from table1 EXCEPT SELECT from table2; And this sql shows data in table2 but not in table1: SELECT from. Oracle Compare Two Database Tables Sql Query List All We won't show you that ad again. There are various ways in which difference between two lists can be generated. In this post, I’ll take another look at Stack Overflow data to understand what kinds of Python development have been growing, and in what kinds of companies and organizations it’s most used. This package enables Python applications to connect to the Teradata Database. It turned out that to accomplish this, it is necessary to use TERR. The following examples show how to create the tables of the Employee Sample Database. default will be used. For instance, you can instantiate, print, and compare data class instances straight out of the box: While this is not much more. This article is an excerpt from the full video on Multicore Data Science in R and Python. createOrReplaceTempView() method. Most styling can be specified for header, columns, rows or individual cells. The collation setting for a column controls the order in which data is sorted as well as what strings compare as equal. Here is the code: CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE p_get_bi_data IS --creating cursors for the two types of. A Revision of Tuples in Python. When you talk about comparing two tables, there are two different types of comparison methods: Compare table structure: Compare column names, column datatypes, and compare indexes and constraints. You can also find more information by reading the PyTables FAQ. We can also compare the sorted values with the output that is obtained when the table() command is applied to it. For example, a drug company may want to test a new cancer drug to find out if it improves life expectancy. The placement of the new data is contingent on two properties of the data we are inserting: the hashed value of the key and how the value compares to other objects. The first field is sorted, then the second field, and so on, in ascending order. They are used to check if two values (or variables) are located on the same part of the memory. For instance, you can instantiate, print, and compare data class instances straight out of the box: While this is not much more. SQL Expression Language. Lookup list. It is optimized for comparing tables that share a common origin, in other words multiple versions of the "same" table. By default, it will stop executing after encountering the first miscompare. In this Python SQLite tutorial, we will be going over a complete introduction to the sqlite3 built-in module within Python. - this is a string. Classes can be defined anywhere in a program. If you are new to Python review the. values() return lists of the keys or values explicitly. I understand you have a daily one-way update of your Hortonworks database with transactions from a Teradata database. The Pandas module is a high performance, highly efficient, and high level data analysis library. Many times you need to extract your web table data to compare and verify as per your test case using selenium webdriver software testing tool. Tables allow your data consumers to gather insight by reading the underlying data. Example Scenario : I have two tables loaded from Excel files and then in my report there are two property controls where the value for the first property control. PostgreSQL and MySQL are two of the most common open source databases for storing Python web applications' data. In Excel 2016 it’s available on the Data tab in the Get & Transform group. Step 1: Load the tables into Power Query. Specifically, we are interested in the relationship between 'sex' and 'hours-per-week. These examples will show you how to perform tasks ranging from something as simple as applying DataTables to an HTML table, right the way through to doing server-side processing with pipelining and custom plug-in functions. The performance is mediocre when Python programming code is used to make calls to Spark libraries but if there is lot of processing involved than Python code becomes much slower than the Scala equivalent code. A1="xxxx" and B1="yyy"), I need to return the value in the third column to the fourth column. Though this is good Python, be aware that if you try other high-level languages like Java and C++, such an expression is gibberish. One of the most common ways of visualizing a dataset is by using a table. There isn't a fair way to compare the two. PostgreSQL - Python Interface - The PostgreSQL can be integrated with Python using psycopg2 module. You want to compare them to find out whether they have some common data, or highlight the different data sets. Inserting variables to database table using Python; Python | Convert an. The AUTO_INCREMENT column option for the primary key of the employees table is important to ensure reliable, easily searchable data. Also, you can download Laptop table creation with data in MySQL file which contains SQL queries for table creation along with data so you can use this table for your SELECT operations. Compare Values in two DataFrames. This course will introduce students to the basics of the Structured Query Language (SQL) as well as basic database design for storing data as part of a multi-step data gathering,. It took 10 minutes with Excel. Here, we assume that the data populations follow the normal distribution. Comparing two dataframes. To query data in an SQLite database from Python, you use these steps: First, establish a connection to the SQLite database by creating a Connection object. So I have a list of only the unique usernames. Part 2: Working with DataFrames, dives a bit deeper into the functionality of DataFrames. So now I have two lists: 1 I pulled straight from the DB, one that's the original + 90 days. Using get() to return a default value from a Python dict – Python’s dictionaries have a “get” method to look up a key while providing a fallback value. XlsxWriter is a Python library using which one can perform multiple operations on excel files like creating, writing, arithmetic operations and plotting graphs. We're the creators of MongoDB, the most popular database for modern apps, and MongoDB Atlas, the global cloud database on AWS, Azure, and GCP. Hey, Scripting Guy! I have a script that I wrote to compare two files, but it seems really slow. The Pandas module is a high performance, highly efficient, and high level data analysis library. – derobert Feb 8. With the rise of Frameworks, Python is also becoming common for Web application development. If you need to compare means from distributions with different standard deviation, you should use CompareMeans. Reflection - Loading Table from Existing Database. This tool returns messages showing the comparison result. Python scripts are not a supported expression type in earlier versions. Summary: in this tutorial, you will learn how to compare two tables to find the unmatched records. What’s common between most relational databases is their relational structures (tables, columns, keys, constraints, etc. But to choose a certain test or a method, will have great implications on the product lifecycle. If source is not specified, the default data source configured by spark. Python Database. You can query tables with Spark APIs and Spark SQL. It is not very popular but also can be used for a wide range of the NLP tasks. How to do a quick estimated compare of data in two large SQL Server databases to see if they are equal ; Compare and synchronize images between two SQL Server databases ; SQL Server MERGE Statement overview and examples ; Using Memory-Optimized Tables to Replace SQL Temp Tables and Table Variables ; Temporal Tables in SQL Server. Supported databases include: SQL Server (All Editions), MySQL and Access databases. XlsxWriter is a Python module that can be used to write text, numbers, formulas and hyperlinks to multiple worksheets in an Excel 2007+ XLSX file. Besides teaching model evaluation procedures and metrics, we obviously teach the algorithms themselves, primarily for supervised learning. This information is also not possible to determine by looking at the Order Details table alone, because the Order Details table includes data only about products that have been sold. SequenceMatcher¶ This is a flexible class for comparing pairs of sequences of any type, so long as the sequence elements are hashable. First, you'll create a new file geodatabase to contain the feature classes. The VLOOKUP function performs a vertical lookup by searching for a value in the first column of a table and returning the value in the same row in the index_number position. Comparing large data sets in Python using heapq 2 November 2011. Create all Tables Store in "MetaData" Create Specific Table. Pandas library in Python easily let you find the unique values. measure) across two systems using an Excel pivot table. Now I need to compare staging server's database with the production database so that I can deploy and make changes in production. If the source data is highly normalized as in this example, the number of staging tables will typically be bigger than the number of dimension and fact tables. Especially when we need to process unstructured data. You can write formulas and use some built-in functions in Excel to analyze data; I did that very thing for years and I made it work. Compare and Synchronize Data in One or More Tables with Data in a Reference Database. 12 True "StudentRoster Jan-2": id Name score isEnrolled Comment 111 Jack 2. In Python any number of comparisons can be chained in this way, closely approximating mathematical notation. SQL Expression Language. 1BestCsharp blog 3,031,337 views. The mathematical abstraction corresponding to such tables is a matrix; the corresponding data structure is a two-dimensional array. What's an easy way to show any unmatched rows from each table just like the example below, comparing every column? Assume there are 30 columns in the tables, many of which are NULLable. You use the if statement to perform one action if one thing is true, or any number of other actions, if something else is true. Now, you can easily compare two excel sheets and highlight. Matplotlib can be used to create histograms. While being very powerful, the merge function does not (as of yet) offer to return a merged data. To count the frequencies of each unique entry in the “source” column, we use the “value_counts()” function in Python and the “table()” function in R. Compare two excel files for difference using Python Posted on February 26, 2019 Comparing two excel spreadsheets and writing difference to a new excel was always a tedious task and Long Ago, I was doing the same thing and the objective there was to compare the row,column values for both the excel and write the comparison to a new excel files. We will use this data set to find the ratings distribution for the movies, visualize movies with highest ratings and net earnings and calculate statistical information about the movies. Download MS ACCESS Database Diff tool for free. Configurations for installing MinGW-64 on Windows 10. Some of my previous articles on Python provided insight of the basics and the usage of Python in SQL Server 2017. queries from tables for each database resp. I agree this example is not a bioinformatics question, but I recently had to do this for RNA-Seq count data, so I understand how you could use it. But you would want both set1. Power Query for Excel 2010 and 2013 Office 365 is only available with Office 365 ProPlus and Enterprise licences. Open multiple Excel files and compare data between spreadsheets. What I want to achieve: Compare each column's entry of Spreadsheet 2 against Spreadsheet 1. Often while working with a big data frame in pandas, you might have a column with string/characters and you want to find the number of unique elements present in the column. It returns the DataFrame associated with the external table. Create db link between the DB´s, compare using sql with minus or not in clause. Queues in Python – How to implement a FIFO queue data structure in Python using only built-in data types and classes from the standard library. A data class comes with basic functionality already implemented. This article aims to look at the languages more objectively. Feature Compare can report differences with geometry, tabular values, spatial reference, and field definitions. The bytes type in Python is immutable and stores a sequence of values ranging from 0-255 (8-bits). The Python Imaging Library, or PIL for short, is one of the core libraries for image manipulation in Python. The post Importing Data Into R – Part Two appeared first on The DataCamp Blog. Note: The procedure below is for ArcGIS 10. How to compare two different files line by line in Python? Python Server Side Programming Programming The Python standard library has a module specifically for the purpose of finding diffs between strings/files. • Often data come naturally in the form of a table, e. Speed comparison of Python versus Fortran (as the number of iterations 26 Table 9. The data are arranged in a grid of rows and columns. Statsmodels has a ztest function that allows you to compare two means, assuming they are independent and have the same standard deviation. I am just entering to the python world, hence the level of my question. It is helpful to convert the string to a datetime object since it will allow you to do more advanced functions. 1BestCsharp blog 5,038,628 views. There have been dozens of articles written comparing Python vs R from a subjective standpoint. There are two types of. Two common questions that arise are how to expand a tuple and how to remove objects from a tuple. 21 False Graduated 113 Zoe 4. Especially when we need to process unstructured data. The following examples show how to create the tables of the Employee Sample Database. such as ARIMA models that can help determine how similar they are. DataFrames can be constructed from a wide array of sources such as: structured data files, tables in Hive, external databases, or existing RDDs. You can make these sorts of tables based on more than just correlation. In computing, a graph database (GDB) is a database that uses graph structures for semantic queries with nodes, edges, and properties to represent and store data. Concordance Tables: New SAT Scores to Old SAT Scores (. Now I want to go through, and if the username is in the first column and the second, ignore that record. Let’s say, we can not do arithmetic operations on string datatype. The pandas. Get Table from MetaData. Introduction. Feature Compare can report differences with geometry, tabular values, spatial reference, and field definitions. Hi, Have two tables structured exactly the same. Fig 1: KDnuggets Analytics/Data Science 2018 Software Poll: top tools in 2018, and their share in the 2016-7 polls (* for a more valid comparison, we recomputed the results of 2016, 2017 polls to exclude "lone" votes) Here are the top 11 tools, which all had at least 20% share. The Attribute Tolerance allows you to compare your attribute values with some leeway on accuracy. where and are the means of the two samples, Δ is the hypothesized difference between the population means (0 if testing for equal means), σ 1 and σ 2 are the standard deviations of the two populations, and n 1 and n 2 are the sizes of the two samples. The database platform was a happenstance as the individuals who developed it started out trying to use mSQL to interface with their database tables, and decided they needed a much. Creates an external table based on the dataset in a data source. Date part or object is used to hold date. The performance is mediocre when Python programming code is used to make calls to Spark libraries but if there is lot of processing involved than Python code becomes much slower than the Scala equivalent code. In this post, I will show you a couple of ways to extract text and table data from PDF file using Python and write it into a CSV or Excel file. Here is our list of the most popular Python libraries. We will show you two commonly used techniques to compare data of two tables. array() Python Pandas : How to convert lists to a dataframe; How to Merge two or more Dictionaries in Python ? Pandas : How to Merge Dataframes using Dataframe. Getting started with web scraping with Python for SQL Server. We can use this kind of data structure as a two-dimensional grid of elements. Let’s see how to plot charts with Data tables using realtime data. Create two sample tables:. For example, if the tables have identical structure, the following will return all rows that are in one table but not the other (so 0 rows if the tables have identical data): (TABLE a EXCEPT TABLE b) UNION ALL (TABLE b EXCEPT TABLE a) ; Or with EXISTS to return just a boolean value or a string with one of the 2 possible results:. #!/usr/bin/python ''' CompareCsv. # Find countries where the amount of exports matches the amount of imports importers. Definition and Usage. Tables are very big about 2 billion records each of them. Table A has a list of all the plants currently available. Developers can write programs in Python to use SnappyData features. We will use this data set to find the ratings distribution for the movies, visualize movies with highest ratings and net earnings and calculate statistical information about the movies. To highlight the teams in the first list that are not in the second list, execute the following steps. To understand this thing in a better way we will take an example. I used the command for the first copy to the one column data with - Insert into table B (column) =select column from table A. We’ll now take an in-depth look at the Matplotlib tool for visualization in Python. Say you have two lists of data (List 1 and List2) in your excel worksheet. Can anyone tell me what Python function should I use to compare values stored in one column in an attribute table with values stored within a script's dictionary{}. e queries contains Count(*) function so I want to compare the value of the two queries for each testcase ID. When you run the program, you are ask if you want a detailed comparison. Have two CSV files containing client records and need to compare the two and then output to a third file those rows where there are differences to the values within the record (row) as well as output those records (rows) on the second file that are not on first file. CSV or comma-delimited-values is a very popular format for storing structured data. Python Database API supports a wide range of database servers such as − Here is the list of available Python database. In the fifth example, the list of squares is filtered according to whether the given entries are greater than 5 and less than 50. Table Compare can report differences and similarities with tabular values and field definitions. An Azure Databricks table is a collection of structured data. Compare, update and merge Excel tables and entire databases automatically in just a few seconds. XlsxWriter is a Python module for creating Excel XLSX files. To highlight the teams in the first list that are not in the second list, execute the following steps. And then take largest of them and put it on stroke field2(table1). 04/11/2017; 2 minutes to read +1; In this article. I used the command for the first copy to the one column data with - Insert into table B (column) =select column from table A. DataTables Table plug-in for jQuery Advanced tables, instantly. Python has bindings for many database systems including MySQL, Postregsql, Oracle, Microsoft SQL Server and Maria DB. Comparing DataRows (LINQ to DataSet) 03/30/2017; 2 minutes to read +7; In this article. Complete Python Pandas Data Science Tutorial! (Reading CSV/Excel files, Sorting, Filtering, Groupby) - Duration: 1:00:27. There is also a sorted() built-in function that builds a new sorted list from an iterable. The following examples show how to create the tables of the Employee Sample Database. Python is a popular general purpose dynamic scripting language. Example Problem. The Bytes Type. So now I have two lists: 1 I pulled straight from the DB, one that's the original + 90 days. To access the data, you'll need to use a bit of SQL. For modern Python 3 MySQL programming, use PyMySQL module. The language’s popularity has resulted in a plethora of Python packages being produced for data visualization, machine learning, natural language processing, complex data analysis, and more. Often while working with a big data frame in pandas, you might have a column with string/characters and you want to find the number of unique elements present in the column. The sqlite3 module provides a DB-API 2. Python Pandas data analysis workflows often require outputting results to a database as intermediate or final steps. If you need values from Python variables it is recommended to use the "?" placeholder. For a programmer moving to Python the problem is that there are no explicit provisions for multidimensional arrays. db and a table employee. You want to verify this. Query created by the Table Analyzer. Summary: in this tutorial, you will learn how to use the MySQL COUNT() function to return the number rows in a table. Click on the table to get the result changes which would be our two additional tables added ‘Prediction’ and ‘Probability of Leaving’. Date part or object is used to hold date. Both the Input Base Table and Input Test Table are sorted based on the fields you specify. We can use this kind of data structure as a two-dimensional grid of elements. You must compare the two tables to determine which products have never sold. JTable does not contain or cache data; it is simply a view of your data. xlsx/36 KB) Includes concordance instructions and concordance tables comparing new to old SAT scores. (Sample code to create the above spreadsheet. Two common questions that arise are how to expand a tuple and how to remove objects from a tuple. Imagine you have two different tables/queries that are supposed to have/return identical data. First, the fastest-growing use of Python is for data science, machine learning and academic research. Note: this exercise only works on Python 2 due to BeautifulSoup doing something differently in Python 3. corr() fancy. Drop a Table. field1 and field2 are sourced from tableB. SQL join two tables related by a single column primary key or foreign key pair using where clause Last update on September 19 2019 10:37:27 (UTC/GMT +8 hours). Ignore script options. # Two objects with the same name are considered equal if they have the same definitions. Programming can dramatically improve our ability to collect and analyze information about the world, which in turn can lead to discoveries through the kind of careful reasoning demonstrated in the previous section. Easily calculate mean, median, sum or any of the other built-in functions in R across any number of groups. There are two unique aspects of MySQL in comparison to Oracle and SQL Server: it was not originally developed for commercial use and it is an open source database. The solution would be to use the API to customize the comparison to subsets of records and compare them one by one. (Instructor will code this-- see attachment at bottom of this page). How to do a quick estimated compare of data in two large SQL Server databases to see if they are equal ; Compare and synchronize images between two SQL Server databases ; SQL Server MERGE Statement overview and examples ; Using Memory-Optimized Tables to Replace SQL Temp Tables and Table Variables ; Temporal Tables in SQL Server. Earlier I wrote about An Efficiency Tool to Compare and Synchronize SQL Server Databases and it was very much well received. items & exporters. Tables created by the Table Analyzer. See documentation here. It is especially useful for comparing text, and includes functions that produce reports using several common difference formats. Creating Excel files with Python and XlsxWriter. You know, the best part about writing a daily column on system administration scripting is that people only see the finished result; they never see all the detours, dead-ends, and other frustrations we go through in order to produce that column. This document will try and explain the ways that joining two tables work. Installation and Use. Python is a popular general purpose dynamic scripting language. Classes can be defined anywhere in a program. This worked example demonstrates a basic comparison and synchronization of two SQL Server databases. There are three preparatory steps for scraping web pages via Python with HTML tables for SQL Server tables. For the most part, querying tables in a graph database works much the same way as querying regular relational tables, although there are some limitations, such as not being able to perform cross-database queries on graph tables. (Sample code to create the above spreadsheet. Column A has 240 Accounts entries and Column B has Values for each account entry. Pandas library in Python easily let you find the unique values. Updated: July 2018. If I understood well, You wrote about the case when I have to use Python together with Excel files. It is often necessary to compare the survey response proportion between the two populations. The above syntax is the general SQL 2003 ANSI standard syntax. If you need values from Python variables it is recommended to use the "?" placeholder. Python uses hash tables for dictionaries and sets. read mySQLiteScript. SELECT command can be used to query and join data from two related tables. You know, the best part about writing a daily column on system administration scripting is that people only see the finished result; they never see all the detours, dead-ends, and other frustrations we go through in order to produce that column. Published: Tuesday 23 rd August 2016. Suppose you need to compare rows from a database table with rows from a file. Any item for which one or the other does not have an entry is marked with NaN, or "Not a Number," which is how Pandas marks missing data (see further discussion of missing data in Handling Missing Data). Multiple sort fields may be specified. You can practice with each of them to see how it work. This allows you to account for any slight changes that might have occurred in processing your data. Compare data across multiple rows in a spreadsheet. There are various ways in which difference between two lists can be generated. Im running this process using hadoop streaming with python, so the actual code is a bit different (ie using csv files to debug locally). Here we will take two tables and now want to do pull matching data. NET Perfomance and speed question ( Comparing with C++ Apps) command line tool for comparing XML files; comparing multiple copies of terrabytes of data?. The basic algorithm predates, and is a little fancier than, an algorithm published in the late 1980’s by Ratcliff and Obershelp. We need the to find where the tables are same How to compare two tables in oracle database?. The first field is sorted, then the second field, and so on, in ascending order. Check out the beginning. Can anyone tell me what Python function should I use to compare values stored in one column in an attribute table with values stored within a script's dictionary{}. Im running this process using hadoop streaming with python, so the actual code is a bit different (ie using csv files to debug locally). Comparing two columns in two different rows. Periscope Data brings all your data together in a single platform and delivers SQL, Python, and R in one solution. Any item for which one or the other does not have an entry is marked with NaN, or "Not a Number," which is how Pandas marks missing data (see further discussion of missing data in Handling Missing Data). See the QIIME install guide if you need help getting the QIIME scripts installed. Currently even matching records are printed as non. Then, execute a SELECT statement. JOIN is a syntax often used to combine and consolidate one or more tables. The Output Compare File will contain all similarities and differences between the Input Base Table and the Input Test Table. SELECT command can be used to query and join data from two related tables. A data class comes with basic functionality already implemented. If no table is present in your MySQL server you can refer to our article to create a MySQL table from Python. As in the exercises in Chapter 1, display a full sentence labeling the initial data and both the integer quotient and the remainder. Comparing multiple rows insert vs single row insert with three data load methods The performance of 'extract, transform, load' (ETL) processes for large quantities of data can always be improved by objective testing and experiment with alternative techniques. The processing time.